The modem I have is Huawei SmartAX MT880 [hereafter called Modem].
My wireless router is Linksys WRT54G2 Ver 1 [hereafter called WRT or Router]

The procedure should be more or less similar with other models of WRT54G and BSNL modems.

In this setup the Linksys WRT54G2 will be our Gateway/Router. All wired/wireless computers will be connected to it.
The Modem will just act like a modem[bridge], with WRT doing the PPPOE[ADSL] dialing and connection. Once connected the Internet IP will be assigned to the WRT and not modem or computers.

There are several articles in the internet which uses the Modem as the Gateway/Router and the WRT as a wireless switch. This is not the recommended way.

Note: You NEED your dataone Username and password for the rest of the procedure. If you dont have, try the method described in the next section or call BSNL. Also a basic knowledge of networking is required.

So Lets begin,

As of now, the WRT is not connected to anywhere and unplugged. Your modem is connected directly to your computer and you have a working internet connection.

1. Setup the Modem in Bridge mode.
Skip steps 1 & 2, if you use a dialer in your computer to connect to internet every time. In this case your modem is already in Bridge mode.

  • Log into the WebAdmin of the Modem, by typing in a browser, with username ‘admin‘ and password ‘admin
  • In the sidebar, Click Home > DHCP and check whether you are using DHCP
  • Click on WAN Setting.
  • [Use a password unmasker like this and note down your dataone username and password, incase you dont know them].
  • Set the WAN Type to RFC2684Bridged and let the Connection Type remain at Pure Bridged.
  • Click on Apply.
  • The modem will now reboot
  • If not, click Save and Restart from Tools > System Settings on sidebar
  • Wait till it reboots.

2. Verify the connection in Bridge mode

  • Create a PPPOE dialer from Control Panel > Network Connections > New Connection. Click here for more detailed instructions.
  • Try connecting using it.
  • If you get connected, things are fine. Else revisit the previous steps.
  • Turn off the modem.

3. Setup the WRT

  • Disconnect the cable from the modem to the computer and connect it to the WAN/Internet port of the WRT.
  • Connect another cable from your computer to any of the WRT’s 4 LAN ports and switch on WRT
  • Log into the WebAdmin of the WRT, by typing with username ” and password ‘admin
  • In the Setup > Basic Setup, change the Internet Connection Type to PPPoE.
  • Set the Username and Password of your dataone connection.
  • Set the connection to KeepAlive, with a Redial Period of 30 sec.
  • Leave MTU at Auto
  • You do not have to change the Router IP. Leave it at There is a misconception that it will cause conflict with the modem’s IP, but it doesnt, I have had it working like this perfectly. But if you wish, it can be any private IP, I currently use
  • You can setup the DHCP settings if you were previously using it. Otherwise keep it disabled and you can set static IP’s for your computers later.
  • Click Save Settings.

4. Do a Power Cycle

  • Turn off [Unplug] the WRT and modem.
  • Wait for about 30 seconds.
  • Turn on the modem and wait till the Lan and Link lights are lit and stable.
  • Turn on the router. After a few seconds, the Internet/WAN light of the router as well as additional lights on your modem should lit[or blink] to indicate a connection.

Cross your fingers and check the Status page in the WebAdmin for the status of the connection. It may take 1-2 mins for the connection to get established.

If not, Verify that you have done everything properly and repeat the powercycle.

If you see ‘Connected‘ and valid IP addresses in your Status page, you have a fully working setup 🙂
Proceed to configuring wireless.

Now, if you see ‘Connected‘ and valid IP addresses in your Status page but cannot browse internet, it may be usually a DNS issue or something. See that you have added DNS entries in your computer.
You could try the free DNS servers of OpenDNS.

I recently upgraded my Firefox 2.x to 3. After that i was not able to download any files. Whenever i click on the download link, the Firefox freezes for 2-3 minutes and then ill get error message
“Unable to save to Temp folder C:\Docu~1\%User%\LocalSettings\Temp/xxxfile.part. Unknown error occured. Try saving to a different location.” The CPU usage during this time will be 99% for firefox.exe

However, i was able to download by right clicking and ‘save link as‘ option.

Things i tried with no success :-):

  1. Restarted Windows 😀
  2. Cleared Firefox cache.
  3. Deleted the download history.
  4. Changed the default download location.
  5. Deleted the file downloads.sqlite in Profiles folder.
  6. Changed the option to ‘Always ask where to save‘ for each download.
  7. Cleared the various options in brower.download.xxx in about:config.
  8. Did a system virus/spyware scan (no virus found).
  9. Disabled antivirus/firewall.
  10. Created a new profile.
  11. Finally uninstalled and reinstalled Firefox.

The solution:
Decided to look more into the error message. Something was preventing Firefox from using the Temp folder. When i checked my Temp folder there were more than 55000 files and 281Mb :-o. So i selected all those files (ctrl + a) and gave a shift + delete. Hmmm, it took almost 6-8 minutes for explorer to delete them.
But to my surprise my FF was perfectly normal after that.

So what was the problem? Was the Temp folder full? I d’ont know about any such limit for a folder. Who cares! 🙂

Setting up GnuPG in Windows

This article is somewhat dated though it might still work. I suggest you try GPG4Win. They have a nice tutorial here


GnuPG or GPG is used to encrypt and decrypt data and to create and verify signatures. GPG is a free software alternative to the PGP Cryptography and is interoperable with the current version of PGP.

The basic steps involved are,

  • Download and Install GPG.
  • Setup your own KeyPair (Public and Private Key)
  • Import Public Keys (of whom you want to send encrypted data)
  • Install a Front End (GUI Application for ease of use)

Note: I suggest you try GPG4Win. They have a nice tutorial here

Download GPG from GPG Website . Choose the windows binary.
Run it and follow the instructions to install it.

Let us now setup a key pair,
Take a MS-Dos prompt and browse to the directory of GPG.
Create your KeyPair using the following command.
gpg --gen-key

It asks you several questions and usually gives you a choice of answers. I’ve noted them below with my answers.

kind of key you want:’DSA and Elgamal (default)’
keysize :1024
KeyValidity:0 (Key does not expire)
RealName: <Your Name>
E-mailAddress: <Your Email>
Comment: <Give anything as comment>
Passphrase: <The passphrase(password) can be a small sentence.>

Note that this passphrase will be asked everytime you do something with your PrivateKey.

Now the system will generate a KeyPair (pubring.gpg, secring.gpg, and trustdb.gpg)and it will be stored in the C:\Documents and Settings\[your name]\Application Data\gnupg by default
To back up your GPG keys, copy them to a CD or some other place.

Now it is required to export your Public Key you just created, so that it can be easily given to anyone, or copied in your webpage etc. This command exports your Public Key in an ASCII format in the file PubKey.txt.
gpg --armor --output "C:\PubKey.txt" --export <Your Name>

To send an encrypted mail to somebody you need to import his Public Key. Download his Public Key file or copy it from his webpage into a textfile and give the command. You have to repeat this task for everyone whom you need to send encrypted data.
gpg --import <FriendsKey.txt>

Now you have a fully working GPG(PGP) Setup. You can use GPG commands to encrypt/decrypt or sign/verify.

Download a front end for GnuPG. They present you a GUI and eliminates the need to remember and type commands.
A variety of front ends are available here.

I chose GPGee. GPGee adds a new menu into the right-click context menu of a file and easily allow you to Sign/Verify and Encrypt/Decrypt any file.

Download and Install GPGee from here.
After installing GPGee, you will have to configure it. Right click on any file and choose GPGee > Configure. Now set the path Program Path(where you installed GPG) and Public/Private Key Paths (see above).

Thats All!!

GPGee Menu

Now Encrypt/Decrypt Sign/Verify can be done by RightClick > GPGee and choosing appropriate item.
Note: To Encrypt a file in your hard disk for extra security, RightClick > GPGee > Encrypt (Symmetric)

Have fun 🙂 !!

An Introduction to GnuPG

GnuPG LogoThe GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is a free software replacement for the PGP suite of cryptographic software. GnuPG is based on OpenPGP and is interoperable with the current version of PGP
You can use GnuPG for encrypting e-mails, encrypting files in your filesystem, and for creating digital signatures.
GnuPG(PGP too) works using a technique called Public Key Encryption.

Public Key Encryption
Consider the case of sending a secret email. Classic methods for encryption only use one key for encryption. The sender encrypts the message with this key. The receiver uses this very same key to decrypt the message. So that means the key too has to be given to the receiver in someway. But if somebody else too somehow obtains this key then he too can decrypt the message.
In Public Key Encryption system there are actually a pair of keys, the Public Key which can be given to anyone and the Private Key which is available only to the owner. Now, a message (or a file) encrypted with the Public Key can only be decrypted with the Private Key of the same pair. So to send a mail to Alice, we actually encrypt with her public key and send to her, now only Alice can decrypt this message with her private key.

Digital Signatures
Digital Signatures are just like normal signatures. They are used to check whether the message is from the one who claims to the author. The method is simple, We can digitally sign the messages we send using our Private Key. Now the receiver can verify the authenticity of the message using our Public Key.
You can see that Digital Signature works the in an opposite fashion than Public Key Encryption.

Digital vs. Analogue Transmission
Digital transmission system transmits information by means of a series of ‘on’ and ‘off’, or more practically ‘less voltage’ for ‘off’ and ‘high voltage’ for ‘on’. Minor variations in voltage will not mean anything as only two states of voltage are considered. This means that the transmission is less errorsome; i.e. in technical terms, it contains less noise

In Analogue transmission system, signal is transmitted by varying voltages, current or phase. Here even a minor variation is meaningful and as a result analogue transmission has more noise.

How ADSL Works.
Public telephone System uses only Analogue transmission system. This was because the concept of digital data communications as we know it today did not exist earlier. The other reason is that voice is an analogue signal.

The normal telephone lines carry voice data using frequency less than 4 KHz (commercial bandwidth), however these lines have the capability to carry frequencies well beyond 4KHz.
ADSL utilizes this unused bandwidth for data transmission, simultaneously with the normal voice. This means that we can use telephone along with data transmission.

ADSL uses a modulation scheme DMT (Discrete Multitone Modulation) also called Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to modulate the data to about 26-138khz(upstream) and 138-1104khz (downstream) and transmits them. It is to be noted that what ADSL modems do is digital modulation. That’s what the digital in ADSL is all about. [Note:ISDN uses pure digital transmission and there is no modulation/demodulation]

Since the voice and ADSL signal frequencies are widely separated, the possibility of interference between them are very minimum.

Once the signal reaches the telephone company’s local office, the signal is filtered and split and the ADSL signal is stripped off and immediately routed onto a conventional internet network, while any voice-frequency signal is switched into the conventional phone network.
This filtering and splitting is also done on our side so that only voice is fed to phone.

Authentication scheme can also be provided in ADSL. Newer implementations of ADSL often use PPP over Ethernet or ATM (PPPoE or PPPoA), while authenticating with a userid and password and using PPP mechanisms to provide network details.

Draw backs of ADSL
The ADSL signal however is distance dependant. That is, the speed of the service decreases with increase in distance from the telephone exchange. And the maximum possible distance is only about 5 KMs

The ADSL is asymmetric this means that the download and upload speeds are not same. Usually it can achieve a download speed of 1-2 mbps but the upload speeds are in the order of 256kbps. [Speed available in India]

ADSL modem
ADSL modem is a device that does the above specified things to enable a computer to use an ADSL service.
“Modem” is indeed the correct terminology since there is MOdulation and DEModulation of the signal, even though it doesn’t resemble a usual 56K modem [which uses analogue modulation].

For using an ADSL service with authentication [ie PPPoE], the user connects the ADSL modem to his computer usually via Ethernet/USB line and uses PPPoE dialer software to dial the connection. Once the connection is established the computer is assigned a public IP provided usually via DHCP. [Static IP can also be provided]

ADSL Modem
The ‘ipconfig’ command gives the following output:

PPP adapter <connection-name>:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . :
Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . :
Default Gateway . . . . . . . :

This shows that the computer is assigned a valid public IP.

ADSL Router
The ADSL connection will usually be used to share the internet to several computers. So most of the ADSL modems available now contain also a router and Hub/Switch. This type of modem is more appropriately known as an ADSL Modem+Router or simply ADSL Router.

In this setup the username and password are stored inside the router and the router automatically dials the connection when it’s switched on. Here it’s the router that gets the public IP and not the computer as in the previous case .

The advantage of this setup is that no computer is directly accessible from outside, so more security. This also eliminates the need to use the dialer software.
Note that to run a web server etc in one of the computers we will need to enable port forwarding in the ADSL Router.

ADSL Router
We assign the internal IP of the ADSL Router [eg:] as the gateway IP of all internal computers to give them access to internet.

Bridged Mode of ADSL Router
There are times when we have a better router, and we would like to use it than the router in the ADSL Router. This means that we don’t want the ‘router functions’ of our ADSL router and just only the ‘modem functions’
To cater such cases, the ADSL Router has an option called bridged mode commonly called modem mode. Enabling this mode will make it a plain standard ADSL Modem.

To Read and Write Malayalam.

Note: This article is somewhat outdated. Please read the updated version of this article at my website www.33dots.com/index.php/web/to-read-and-type-malayalam.htm


A computer represents an alphabet using a number code. The coding scheme which is currently used (ASCII) however only represents the English alphabet and numerals and some special characters.

Unicode is a new encoding scheme which represents all alphabets in all languages in the world. In Unicode, Malayalam first letter ‘a’ (അ) is given the code number 3333. Similarly, different numbers are given for rest of Malayalam alphabets. The fonts that understand this new encoding scheme are called Unicode fonts.

The use of Unicode fonts opens up wonderful possibilities. For an example, it allows you to search google for Malayalam words and retrieve web pages which contain that particular Malayalam text.

To read and write Malayalam properly in your computer you need to have Unicode Malayalam fonts installed in your machine. Windows XP comes with a default Malayalam unicode font Karthika, but it is small and difficult to read.
So its recommended to install some other unicode malayalam font like AnjaliOldLipi, Rachana etc.

Please Note that the font used in the websites like Malayala-manorama, Deepika etc are not unicode, they are just usual ASCII encoded fonts which uses malayalam symbols at the places of English one’s. They use the code numbers assigned for English alphabets for Malayalam. This method does not have any of the features of Unicode fonts.

To install unicode font AnjaliOldLipi(Windows)

  • Download the font from here
  • Go to Control panel > Fonts > Install fonts(file menu)
  • Browse to the font you downloaded.
  • Click ok and the font will be installed.

To enable Firefox and IE read Malayalam page.
Note that you need these steps only if this if you see some garbage here “മലയാളം” or Here.


  • Make sure you have AnjaliOldLipi installed.
  • Go to Tools > Options > Content (Tab)
  • You can see the Fonts & Colors section. Take Advanced.
  • Choose Malayalam from the Fonts for dropdown menu.
  • Now set AnjaliOldLipi in each of the dropdown list. Click Ok and Ok.
  • Check whether you can see malayalam written here “മലയാളം” or Here.


  • Go to Tools > Internet Options.
  • Click Fonts and Choose Malayalam form the Language Script dropdown menu
  • Set the font as AnjaliOldLipi in the below list box.

To Write Malayalam.
The standard computer keyboard is not designed to support Unicode character inputting.
So, one option is to use a software called Varamozhi. This software allows text inputting in Mozhi scheme [typing ‘ka’ in English will output malayalam letter ka (ക) in Varamozhi] and it automatically creates a unicode file.

Another option is to use a software called MozhiKeymap, which maps the keys you pressed to the appropriate Unicode one. This software allows typing into IE or Word directly in Mozhi scheme. Please click here for detailed installation instructions.

Incorrect Display [eg Chillu letters]
It’s seen that Firefox, Notepad etc render malayalam letters incorrectly while IE and Word etc display them correctly.
This is usually due to an old version of the Unicode rendering file ‘usp10.dll‘.
Usually installing a new version of this file from Microsoft may solve the problem.

Download and unzip the file to a temporary directory.
Rename the usp10.dll in windows/system32 to usp10OLD.dll[backup copy] and copy the new usp10.dll.
Also do the same with the usp10.DLL in the ../program files/common files/microsoft shared/office10 directory
Restart the windows.

Have fun reading and writing Malayalam 🙂 …..

Note: Please read the updated version of this article at my website www.33dots.com/

– – – – –
Special thanks to Cibu for his Varamozhi page which is the source for most part of this article.

Windows XP Professional
Apache 2.0.55
PHP 5.1.1
MySQL 5.0

Download the Installation package from http://codex.gallery2.org/index.php/Gallery2:Download#Packages
Choose ‘typical‘ as it contains the base application, 6 themes and a selection of popular modules which are enough to satisfy the demands of most Gallery user

Unzipped the package into a folder called ‘gallery‘ in WWW(web server’s) directory

Read the ReadMe, it talks about most of the issues related to installation.

ImageMagic is required for creating thumbnails in Gallery. Download ImageMagic from http://www.imagemagick.org/script/binary-releases.php
Choose package ImageMagick-6.2.9-3-Q16-windows-dll.exe and installed it

GD is another graphics package for Gallery similair to ImageMagick. The GD library is already available as an extension to PHP. So just uncommented(activated) the php_gd2.dll in ‘php.ini‘.

Craeted a directory called ‘Gallery Data‘ for holding image files. (This should be outside webserver’s root)

Created a database ‘gallery‘.
Created a Database User ‘galleryuser‘ with password ‘password‘ with ‘ALL Privileges’ on ‘gallery‘ database.

== Actual Installation Begin ==

Open the web browser and browse to the install directory. Gallery2 will walk you through all the necessary steps. There are 12 steps (detailed in ReadeMe) in Installations and all steps were over smoothly.

During the instalation step an Administrator account will be created. This info is written in config.php in gallery directory.
administrator account : admin
password : password

While installing the modules, I got some warnings. Mainly because some of the required componets were not available in the system.


Install Other Modules

* The Archive Upload module was installed, but needs configuration to be activated
* The Ffmpeg module was installed, but needs configuration to be activated
* The NetPBM module was installed, but needs configuration to be activated
* The URL Rewrite module was installed, but needs configuration to be activated.


You will be prompted to read the Security related Issues towards the end.

Gallery Installation Screenshot

This is the final screen you will see.

== Installation complete ==

NOw created the ‘.htaccess‘ file with the following contents. This is required for restricting unauthorised access.

<Files ~ "\.(inc|class)$">
Deny from all

Since windows doesnt allow to creating filenames beginning with ‘.’ , it was renamed using DOS ren command G:\WWW\gallery>ren “New Text Document.txt” .htaccess

Now, begin creating albums…